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The Role of Antioxidants in Sun Protection

Posted July 5, 2018

By: Dr. Colin O’Brien ND, Medical Director, Cyto-Matrix

The sun is shining and summer is officially here! This is great news for many of us Canadians that find the winters to always be a bit too long…but it’s not so great for our skin health if we aren’t well prepared.

Proper sunscreen application, skin coverage and avoidance of direct sun during peak UV hours (11am-3pm) are all important factors when it comes to sun safety and reducing your risk of sunburn and skin cancer. But few people acknowledge the role of diet and antioxidant protection in sun protection. What we put in our bodies matters, too.

For example, excessive alcohol consumption has been correlated with higher rates of sunburn, and interventional evidence confirms that alcohol consumption reduces the time it takes for your skin to become red after UV exposure. Essentially, alcohol decreases the efficiency of our antioxidant network in the skin, thereby decreasing the protection from UV rays. Not such great news for patio beers and summer drinks on the dock.

This all makes sense, though, when you consider that tanning or becoming sunburnt is simply damage caused by ultraviolet rays. Our skin darkens to naturally protect against future exposure to these same UV rays. As this process is occurring, tons of free radicals are produced in the body that need to be quenched. Antioxidants to the rescue!

In addition to a diet high in antioxidants and bioflavonoids from fruits and vegetables, specific natural health ingredients have been targeted and identified as beneficial for sun protection. Consider the following antioxidants for extra support:

 

  • Cocoa: As if you need more reason to consume regular amounts of dark chocolate, research has shown that a daily cocoa powder drink led to less redness after UV exposure at 6 and 12 weeks. Improved hydration and circulation of the skin was also noted in those consuming the flavanol-dense cocoa drink but not those in the control group.
  • Vitamin C and E: Multiple studies have explored the effects of these commonplace anti-oxidants in UV protection. It turns out that both topical application of vitamin C and oral supplementation of vitamin C in combination with vitamin E can provide numerous benefits. One study explored an oral combination of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, carotenoids and proanthocyanidins, finding that the blend led to a decrease in matrix metalloprotease levels after UV exposure, possibly explaining part of the mechanism involved in antioxidant photoprotection.
  • Carotenoids: Various carotenoids, alone and in combination, have shown promise for UV protection. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 20 women found that 30mg of beta-carotene per day, for 10 weeks prior to 13 days of sun exposure, led to less skin redness. Another study of 24mg of Beta-Carotene, in combination with 8mg Lutein and 8mg Lycopene showed benefit. A combination of lutein and zeaxanthan, orally and topically, also show benefits. Two poorly done studies found that mixed carotenoids allowed for greater tolerability of the sun and more time until redness ensued. It should be noted that other studies have found limited or no benefit for sun protection with carotenoids, but the vast majority show benefits.
  • Green Tea Extract: Although animal research and human study have only shown benefits for the topical application of green tea and its constituents, it stands to reason that regular oral consumption of the anti-oxidant powerhouse tea would be a good idea for the prevention and treatment of sun damage, too. At the very least, daily intake of green tea can be used to promote optimal metabolism and perhaps replace other bad habits!
  • EPA Omega-3 Fatty Acid: In a double-blind randomized study, either 4 grams/day of EPA or 4 grams/day of oleic acid was supplemented for 3 months. After 3 months of supplementation, those in the EPA group had an 8-fold increase in EPA skin content and, most importantly, significantly reduced sunburn sensitivity (meaning a greater resiliency or threshold until burning). Markers of DNA damage in the skin were also reduced.  

 

Animal research, anecdotal evidence and mechanistic data suggests that there are many other antioxidants to consider for UV protection of the skin such as astaxanthin, CoQ10 and resveratrol. Preliminary research also indicates that nicotinamide, a form of vitamin B3, is photoprotecive as well, and that quercetin and rutin may be effective when used topically. The recurring theme is antioxidant support and it seems that a blend is best. If you’re headed to the beach, be sure to get your fruits and veggies in!

A Final Note on Sunscreens: When it comes to sunscreens, it is important to mention that they are not all created equal. Here is a quick summary of what to look for in a sunscreen:

  1. Avoid retinyl palmitate and oxybenzone, as these compounds have been associated with hormone disruption and carcinogen activity
  2. Ensure there are active ingredients such as zinc oxide, titanium oxide, avobenzone and mexoryl SX.
  3. Choose lotions instead of sprays

Check out the Environmental Working Group (ewg.org) for more info.


References: 

[1] Mukamal KJ. Alcohol consumption and self-reported sunburn: a cross-sectional, population-based survey. J Am Acad
Dermatol. 2006 Oct; 55(4): 584-9.
[2] Darvin ME et al. Alcohol consumption decreases the protection efficiency of the antioxidant network and increases the risk of
sunburn in human skin. Skin Pharmacol Physiol.2013; 26(1): 45-51.
[3] Heinrich U, Neukam K, Tronnier H et al. Long-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced
erythema and improves skin condition in women.J Nutr.2006;136:1565-1569
[4] Traikovich SS. Use of topical ascorbic acid and its effects on photodamaged skin topography.Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck
Surg.1999;125:1091-1098.
[5] Eberlein-Konig B, Placzek M, Przybilla B. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-
alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E).J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:45-48.
[6] Fuchs J, Kern H. Modulation of UV-light-induced skin inflammation by D-alpha-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid: a clinical study using
solar simulated radiation.Free Radic Biol Med.1998;25:1006-1012.
[7] Greul AK, Grundmann JU, Heinrich F, et al. Photoprotection of UV-irradiated human skin: an antioxidative combination of vitamins
E and C, carotenoids, selenium, and proanthocyanidins.Skin Pharmacology and AppliedSkin Physiology.2002;15:307-315.
[8] Gollnick HPM, Hopfenmuller W, Hemmes C, et al. Systemic beta carotene plus topical UV sunscreen are an optimal protection
against harmful effects of natural UV-sunlight: results of the Berlin-Eilath study.Eur J Dermatol. 1996;6:200-205.
[9] Heinrich U, Gartner C, Wiebusch M, et al. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects
humans from UV-induced erythema.J Nutr. 2003;133:98-101.
[10] Palombo P, Fabrizi G, Ruocco V, et al. Beneficial long-term effects of combined oral/topical antioxidant treatment with the
carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin on human skin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Skin Pharmacol Physiol.2007;20:199-
210.
[11] Lee J, Jiang S, Levine N, et al. Carotenoid supplementation reduces erythema in human skin after simulated solar radiation
exposure.Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 2000; 223:170-174.
[12] Stahl W, Heinrich U, Jungmann H, et al. Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced
erythema in humans.Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:795-798.
[13] Garmyn M, Ribaya-Mercardo JD, Russel RM, et al. Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the human sunburn reaction.Exp
Dermatol.1995;4:104-111.
[14] Katiyar SK, Elmets CA, Agarwal R, et al. Protection against ultraviolet-B radiation-induced local and systemic suppression of contact
hypersensitivity and edema responses in C3H/HeN mice by green tea polyphenols.Photochem Photobiol.1995;62:855-861.
[15] Elmets CA, Singh D, Tubesing K, et al. Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea polyphenols.J Am Acad
Dermatol.2001;44:425-432
[16] Lesley E. et al. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on UVR-related cancer risk in humans. An
assessment of early genotoxic markers,Carcinogenesis Vol 24(5); 2003: 919–925.

[17] Damian DL. Photoprotective effects of nicotinamide. Photochem Photobiol Sci.2010 Apr;9(4):578-85.
[18] Choquenet B et al. Quercetin and rutin as potential sunscreen agents: determination of efficacy by an in vitro method. J Nat
Prod.2008 Jun; 71(6): 1117-8.

Male Infertility: A Step-Wise Approach

Posted June 4, 2018

By: Dr. Colin O’Brien ND, Medical Director, Cyto-Matrix

Up to 50% of male infertility cases have no clear cause and sperm counts continue to dwindle.[1] Yet, countless research studies have uncovered environment factors that may contribute to male infertility through their negative impact on sperm parameters. This means that there are also countless treatment avenues to explore with our male fertility patients.

If physical and anatomical obstructions are ruled out as causes of infertility, consider this step-wise approach for male patients either struggling with fertility due to poor sperm health (i.e. documented low sperm counts and/or poor motility and morphology) or looking to optimize their fertility through proactive means:

 

Step 1: Address diet

It’s no surprise that diet must be the foundational treatment for improving male fertility. Although many of these changes may seem common sense, they are important to reinforce with your patients before exploring more targeted treatments:

  • Remove or reduce alcohol, marijuana, caffeine and cigarette smoke: Collectively, an increased exposure to these substances has shown a dose-dependent increase in free radical production, reduction in semen amounts, and worse sperm motility and morphology.[2] [3] [4] 
  • Add healthy fats: Research has shown that just 75 grams per day of walnuts, a whole food source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, added to a typical Western diet can improve sperm counts, morphology and motility.[5] This study confirms other research showing that there are lower levels of Omega-3 fatty acids in infertile men when compared to fertile males,[6] and that EPA and DHA supplementation can improve sperm counts and concentrations.[7] Finally, excess saturated fat intake is associated with reduced semen volume.[8]
  • Remove refined sugars: As if we needed another reason to advise patients to avoid refined sugars, research has shown that even just an increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (greater than 1.3 per day) can significantly reduce sperm motility.[9]
  • Consider organic: Reduced pesticide exposure through organic food choices may make a powerful impact on the sperm quality of your male population. A 2008 review found that increased pesticide exposure can affect spermatogenesis and may prolong time-to-pregnancy.[10]

It should be noted that both obesity and being underweight have been associated with lowered testosterone and poor sperm count, respectively.[11] When appropriate, a focus on healthy weight management should be encouraged.

 

Step 2: Review personal care products

Education surrounding environmental toxin exposure is key when discussing male fertility concerns.

In addition to other ‘clean-living’ options such as choosing Bisphenol A (BPA)-free options in plastics and cans, consider the impact of these important endocrine disruptors:

  • Triclosan: This anti-microbial agent commonly found in toothpaste, deodorants, shampoos and other household products, has been demonstrated to be negatively associated with normal sperm morphology, concentration and count.[12]  
  • Parabens: Commonly discussed in the context of xenoestrogen activity and female fertility concerns, these preservatives appear to damage mitochondrial function in sperm. [13] A 2017 study showed that urinary paraben levels were significantly associated with abnormal morphology, decreased sperm motility and decreased testosterone levels.[14]
  • Phthalates: The compounds commonly found in plastics and, unfortunately, also beauty products, have also been shown to negatively impact sperm parameters. For example, one study found urinary mono-methyl-phthalate (MMP) concentrations to strongly correlate with sperm concentration, length and maturity.[15] 

 

Step 3: Add in antioxidant support

Now that you have done some removal, it’s time to add more of the good stuff! Antioxidants help to quench the reactive oxygen species that are generated often in response to environmental exposures and, ultimately, reduce the damage done to sperm mitochondria.

A number of reviews and meta-analyses have definitively demonstrated the ability for antioxidants to not only improve sperm parameters[16], but also increase live birth rates and pregnancy rates in subfertile couples.[17]

Consider a combination of the following antioxidants:

  • Vitamin C: A dose-dependent improvement in sperm motility has been found with vitamin C supplementation in smokers.[18] [19] Many studies have used ascorbic acid in combination with vitamin E and zinc for improved sperm parameters. 
  • Vitamin E: Tocopherols are a well-known group of antioxidants that are widely deficient in the modern-day diet. Vitamin E has been shown to improve sperm parameters on its own[20], but particular improvements have been noted when it is combined with selenium[21], and vitamin C.[22] 
  • Selenium: Not only is selenium beneficial for sperm parameters when combined with Vitamin E or N-acetylcysteine, but solo supplementation also shows benefit for sperm counts and motility (100 mcg over 3 months).[23] This makes sense given that selenium is necessary for proper spermatogenesis.[24]
  • Zinc: Zinc’s function in various aspects of male health, including testosterone production, has long been studied and its impact on fertility and spermatogenesis is no different. A recent meta-analysis of 20 studies found that zinc concentrations in seminal plasma were significantly lower in infertile males and that supplementation is capable of increasing semen volume, while also improving sperm motility and morphology.[25] Zinc in combination with folate has also shown benefit for sperm count[26]
  • L-Carnitine and Acetyl-L-Carnitine: Carnitine provides energy to the sperm by transporting fatty acids into the mitochondria, thereby improving sperm motility. Over a dozen human clinical trials have confirmed the use of either L-carnitine, Acetyl-L-carnitine (the form capable of entering the central nervous system) or a combination of both for improved sperm motility, while a number of these same studies have shown improved pregnancy rates.[27]
  • N-acetylcysteine: most well-known for its ability to increase glutathione levels, at only 600mg/day this amino acid can improve sperm motility and volume.[28] The addition of 200mcg/day of selenium has found even better results in these areas, also with improved sperm morphology.[29]

There are many other antioxidants that have shown benefits for improving sperm markers. The key is to individualize your treatments to target patient-specific dietary and environmental factors. Also consider coenzyme-Q10, arginine, astaxanthin, lycopene, folate and melatonin.

 

Step 4: Address stress and consider botanicals and acupuncture

Although diet, lifestyle and nutritional support have a profound ability to improve male fertility outcomes, stress management needs to be considered as elevated stress can alter testosterone levels and, thereby, sperm numbers and functionality.[30]

Many stress reduction techniques may be indicated (i.e. deep breathing) but herbal extracts can act through multiple mechanisms. For example, adaptogens with the ability to positively impact the HPA-axis can also provide powerful antioxidant support.

Two herbs to consider include:

  • Mucuna pruriens: Also known as velvet bean, this herb contains a high concentration of dopamine, can improve psychological stress scores and also improve sperm parameters.[31] 
  • Withania somnifera: More commonly known as ashwagandha, this adaptogenic herb is best known for its ability to reduce stress and anxiety, but it is also a traditional aphrodisiac capable of treating male sexual dysfunction and infertility. A 2013 placebo-controlled study confirmed this ancient wisdom by showing significant improvements in sperm parameters after 3 months of treatment intervention with 225mg, three times per day.[32] A 167% increase in sperm count was seen, with a 53% increase in sperm volume, a 57% increase in sperm motility and a 17% increase in testosterone levels.

Other herbs to consider with positive research for male fertility outcomes include Eurycoma longifolia, Mucuna pruriens and Panax Ginseng.[33]

Finally, acupuncture may be an appropriate intervention capable of not only reducing stress, but also improving blood flow to the testicles and, thereby, offering multiple mechanisms for improved fertility outcomes.

Various studies have shown acupuncture may be beneficial for male infertility through scrotal temperature control, increased testosterone and improved sperm parameters.[34] [35]

 


 

References: 

[1] Levine H et al. Temporal trends in sperm count: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2017 July 25:1-14.

[2] Wogatzky J et al. The combination matters – distinct impact of lifestyle factors on sperm quality: a study on semen analysis of 1683 patients according to MSOME criteria. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2012; 10: 115.

[3] Fronczak CM, Kim ED, Barqawi AB. The insults of illicit drug use on male fertility. J Androl. 2012:33(4):515-528.

[4] Elena Ricci et al. Coffee and caffeine intake and male infertility: a systematic review. Nutr J. 2017; 16: 37.

[5] Robbins WA et al. Walnuts improve semen quality in men consuming a Western-style diet: randomized control dietary intervention trial. Biol Reprod. 2012; 87(4): 101.

[6] Safarinejad MR et al. Relationship of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with semen characteristics, and anti-oxidant status of seminal plasma: a comparison between fertile and infertile men. Clin Nutr. 2010;29(1):100-105.

[7] Safarinejad MR. Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on semen profile and enzymatic anti-oxidant capacity of seminal plasma in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Andrologia. 2011; 43(1): 38-47.

[8] Hajar Dadkhah et al. The Relationship between the Amount of Saturated Fat Intake and Semen Quality in Men. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2017 Jan-Feb; 22(1): 46–50.

[9] Y.H. Chiu et al. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men. Hum Reprod. 2014 Jul; 29(7): 1575–1584.

[10] Roeleveld N and Bretveld R. The impact of pesticides on male fertility. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jun; 20(3): 229-33.

[11] Wogatzky J et al. The combination matters – distinct impact of lifestyle factors on sperm quality: a study on semen analysis of 1683 patients according to MSOME criteria. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2012; 10: 115.

[12] Zhu W et al. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016; 13(2): 224.

[13] Tavares RS, Martins FC, Oliveira PJ, et al. Parabens in male infertility—Is there a mitochondrial connection? Reprod Toxicol. 2009; 27(1):1-7.

[14] Jurewicz J. Human Semen Quality, Sperm DNA Damage, and the Level of Reproductive Hormones in Relation to Urinary Concentrations of Parabens. J Occup Environ Med. 2017; 59(11): 1034-1040.

[15] Bloom MS et al. Associations between urinary phthalate concentrations and semen quality parameters in a general population. Hum Reprod. 2015; 30(11): 2645-2657.

[16] Ross C et al. A systematic review of the effect of oral antioxidants on male infertility. Reprod Biomed Online. 2010 Jun; 20(6):711-23.

[17] Showell MG et al. Antioxidants for male subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jan 19; (1):CD007411.

[18] Dawson EB, Harris WA, Powell LC. Relationship between ascorbic acid and male fertility. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1990; 62: 1–26.

[19] Agarwal A, Sekhon LH. The role of antioxidant therapy in the treatment of male infertility. Hum Fertil. 2010;13(4):217-225.

[20] Kessopoulou E et al. A double-blind randomized placebo cross-over controlled trial using the antioxidant vitamin E to treat reactive oxygen species associated male infertility. Fertil Steril. 1995 Oct;64(4):825-31.

[21] Keskes-Ammar L et al. Sperm oxidative stress and the effect of an oral vitamin E and selenium supplement on semen quality in infertile men. Arch Androl. 2003 Mar-Apr; 49(2): 83-94.

[22] Baker HW et al. Protective effect of antioxidants on the impairment of sperm motility by activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Fertil Steril. 1996 Feb; 65(2): 411-9.

[23] Scott R et al. The effect of oral selenium supplementation on human sperm motility. Br J Urol. 1998;82(1):76-80.

[24] Boitani C and Puglisi R. Selenium, a key element in spermatogenesis and male fertility. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008; 636: 65-73.

[25] Zhao J et al. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Scientific Reports. 2016; 6: 22386.

[26] Wong WY et al. Effects of folic acid and zinc sulphate on male factor subfertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2002;77(3):491-498.

[27] Mongioi L et al. The role of carnitine in male infertility. Andrology. 2016 Sep;4(5):800-7.

[28] Ciftci H et al. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on semen parameters and oxidative/antioxidant status. Urology. 2009 Jul;74(1):73-6.

[29] Safarinejad MR and Safarinejad S. Efficacy of selenium and/or N-acetyl-cysteine for improving semen parameters in infertile men: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. J Urol. 2009; 181(2): 741-751.

[30] Nargund VH. Effects of psychological stress on male infertility. Nat Rev Urol. 2015 Jul; 12(7): 373-82.

[31] Shukla KK et al. Mucuna pruriens Reduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Semen in Infertile Men. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010; 7(1): 137-144.

[32] Ambiye VR et al. Clinical Evaluation of the Spermatogenic Activity of the Root Extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in Oligospermic Males: A Pilot Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 571420.

[33] Salvati G et al. Effects of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer saponins on male fertility. Panminerva Med. 1996; 38(4): 249-254.

[34] Siterman S et al. Success of acupuncture treatment in patients with initially low sperm output is associated with a decrease in scrotal skin temperature. Asian J Androl. 2009;11(2):200-208.

[35] Pei J et al. Quantitative evaluation of spermatozoa ultrastructure after acupuncture treatment for idiopathic male infertility. Fertil Steril. 2005; 84(1): 141-147.

Lesser-Known and Broad-Reaching Effects of Iron Deficiency

Posted May 1, 2018

By: Dr. Colin O’Brien ND, Medical Director, Cyto-Matrix

Every healthcare practitioner should be able to rhyme off the keynote symptoms of iron-deficiency: fatigue, weakness, dizziness and pallor (pale skin) probably come to mind first. This makes sense given that iron is the most commonly deficient nutrient in the world and a concern often seen in private practice. But the implications of suboptimal iron extend much further than low hemoglobin and low energy. Iron is needed for so much more.

Many practitioners, myself included, have likely missed opportunities to successfully treat patients with iron restoration therapies over the years because of more “atypical” signs and symptoms of inadequate iron. Yes, iron is classically needed in hemoglobin formation and, therefore, oxygen delivery and energy levels, but here are some other conditions and physiological functions that may warrant a more thorough exploration of iron levels:

 

Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS): Iron deficiency has been found to be a common cause of RLS occurring in about 25% of cases! Supplemental iron is certainly most effective in those with documented iron deficiency, however, some patients respond to iron supplementation even without anemia. Iron is thought to be beneficial for RLS through its ability to upregulate dopamine synthesis (it is needed to convert tyrosine into dopamine). If the RLS is refractory to iron therapy, consider deficiencies of magnesium, B12 and vitamin E instead.

 

Female Infertility: Case reports have found that iron supplementation resulted in pregnancy within 28 weeks in infertile woman with borderline low ferritin levels (14-40 ng/mL). Certainly, this is not to say that iron is the ‘silver bullet’ for female infertility, but it deserves attention amidst all other factors.

 

Diffuse Hair Loss: General hair loss can be a symptom of iron deficiency, even before anemia sets in. Restoring optimal iron levels has been shown to offset this symptom and iron supplementation can also be useful in cases of brittle, dry and splitting hairs (if you’re having compliance issues with iron supplements in iron-deficient female patients, this may be worth mentioning!)

 

Poor Immune function: Iron is needed for proper immune function through cytokine production in macrophages and an iron-deficient state may lead to an insufficient immune response. For example, one study in individuals with oral candidiasis found that iron restoration led to lower salivary candida counts and reduced oral lesions.

 

Thyroid Function: We classically discuss the need for selenium to convert T4 into the more bioactive T3, but iron is another mineral that is necessary to promote this conversion through deiodinase activity (and iron is also needed for thyroid peroxidase action). To make matters worse, low thyroid function can lead to worse iron absorption. In cases of hypothyroidism with concomitant iron deficiency, combination treatment with iron and levothyroxine has been shown to be superior over each therapy alone.

 

Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding): Substantial blood loss can obviously lead to iron deficiency. However, few people are aware that an iron deficiency can actually cause a recurring state of heavy menstrual bleeding through weakened uterine muscles that cannot properly clamp down on blood vessels (iron is a cofactor for cytochrome oxidase, an enzyme necessary for muscle contraction). Ultimately, interventional trials confirm that iron supplementation is necessary not only for symptom control but also to reduce the heavy bleeding itself.

 

Cognition, Mood & Intelligence: It is well-documented that children and adults perform poorer on mental function tests in states of iron deficiency, with areas such as attention, memory and concentration being affected. This is the case even in the absence of outright anemia. Mechanistically, inadequate iron supply leads to a dysregulation of dopamine and serotonin metabolism. Both animal trials and human studies have shown that severe iron deficiency during infancy may have long-standing implications on brain health that persist well into adulthood, regardless of adequate iron intake later on in life.

 

As clinicians, it is easy to start down a rabbit-hole to find a medical explanation for complex issues. Yet, it’s generally best to follow the principle of ‘Occam’s razor’: the simplest solution is typically the correct solution. If a patient is vegan, has heavy bleeding or any of the conditions listed above, get back to the basics and test their hemoglobin, ferritin and other blood markers. A well-absorbed iron might be the simple answer that you and your patients are looking for. 

 

Select References:

  1. Earley, C. J. (2009). The importance of oral iron therapy in restless legs syndrome. Sleep Medicine, 10(9), 945-946.
  2. Rushton DH, Ramsay ID, Gilkes JJH, Norris MJ. Ferritin and Fertility. Lancet 1991; 337:1554.
  3. Hard S. Non-anemic iron deficiency as an etiological factor in diffuse loss of hair of the scalp in women. Acta Derm Venereol 1963; 43:562-569.
  4. Sato S. Iron deficiency : structural and microchemical changes in hair, nails and skin. Semin Dermatol 1991; 10:313-319.
  5. Ganz T, Nemeth E. Iron homeostasis in host defence and inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Aug;15(8):500-10.
  6. Higgs JM. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: iron deficiency and the effects of iron therapy. Proc R Soc Med 1973; 66:802-804.
  7. Soliman AT, De Sanctis V, Yassin M, Wagdy M, Soliman N. Chronic anemia and thyroid function. Acta Biomedica. 2017 Apr 28;88(1):119-127.
  8. Ravanbod M, Asadipooya K, Kalantarhormozi M, et al. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Am J Med. 2013;126(5):420-4.
  9. Taymor, ML, Sturgis SH, Goodale WT, Ashbaugh D. Menorrhagia due to chronic iron deficiency. Obstet Gyneacol 1960; 16:571-576.
  10. Cinemre H, Bilir C, Gokosmanoglu F, Bahcebasi T. Hematologic effects of levothyroxine in iron-deficient subclinical hypothyroid patients: A randomized, double-blind, controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(1):151-156.
  11. Taymor ML, Sturgis SH, Yahia C. The etiological role of chronic iron deficiency in production of menorrhagia. JAMA 1964; 187:323-327.
  12. Beard J. Iron deficiency alters brain development and functioning. J Nutr. 2003; 133(5), 1468S-1472S.
  13. Walter T. Impact of iron deficiency on cognition in infancy and childhood. Eur J Clin Nutr 1993; 47:307-316.

Rhodiola: Root Yourself for Back to School and Work!

Posted September 14, 2017

By: Dr. Colin O’Brien ND, Ontario Regional Manager, Cyto-Matrix

Summer has once again come and gone and it’s time to get back into a solid routine. Whether you’re a parent with toddlers headed back to school, a graduate student or just an everyday worker going back into the office after some vacation time, we all could use a little extra support to help us push through the busy fall season. Regular sleep, a healthy diet and moderate exercise will always be the foundation for stress resiliency, but when more support is needed, a little-known herb called Rhodiola rosea can help your body adapt and adjust accordingly.

What is Rhodiola?

Rhodiola rosea, also known as ‘golden root’, is a medicinal herb that has traditionally been used in Russia, Scandinavia and other European countries for a wide variety of health concerns. It is considered an adaptogenic herb, meaning that it can help your body adapt to stress! As you can imagine, the ability to increase resiliency to stress is highly sought after by many parents, students, workers and others in high pace lifestyles, so the popularity of rhodiola has been growing steadily in North America.

 

Why Should You Consider Using Rhodiola?

Traditionally, rhodiola has been used as a stimulant, to increase attention span, memory and physical endurance, but also to treat a wide variety of health concerns such as anxiety, depression, fatigue, anemia, infections and impotence. Most importantly, rhodiola is particularly effective for these concerns when stress is at the root cause of the problem.

Clinical research has been able to confirm many of these wonderful applications for rhodiola root extract. Here are a few highlights:

Burnout: Although rhodiola has been traditionally used for this purpose for many years, brand new research has supported its ability to help people suffering from symptoms of burnout. 118 men and women between the ages of 30-60 took rhodiola rosea extract for 12 weeks and significant improvements were noted in areas of emotional exhaustion, fatigue and joy. An increased ‘zest of life’ and sexual interest and functioning were also found in those taking rhodiola root.

Exercise Performance & Recovery: Research has shown that even short term dosing (ie 4 days) of rhodiola can increase time to exhaustion and oxygen utilization during athletic performance. Perhaps just as important, rhodiola has been found to reduce levels of inflammation in the body 5 hours post-exercise and also 5 days after intense exercise, meaning that it can speed recovery times.

Depression & Anxiety: In a 2007 study of 60 patients suffering from mild to moderate depression, rhodiola extract was shown to significantly improve depression markers such as insomnia, self-esteem and emotional stability when compared to placebo. Similar improvements have been noted in studies and in practitioner feedback when examining the benefits on generalized anxiety disorder. Clinically, many practitioners recommend rhodiola to patients that present as “wired and tired”, meaning anxious and on edge, yet exhausted.

How Does Rhodiola Work in the Body?

Research has found that one of the ways in which rhodiola positively impacts the mental health of an individual is through the balancing of neurotransmitters, chemicals in the brain that are responsible for regulating mood. Rhodiola specifically prevents the breakdown of adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and acetylcholine, thereby increasing their action in the brain. This ultimately improves cognitive measures such as mood, memory and attention.

Although there are many active ingredients within the whole plant extract, rosavins appear to hold most of the medicinal power. With this in mind, it is important to select a rhodiola supplement that specifies the rosavin content.

 

But is Rhodiola Safe?

            Yes, rhodiola is extremely safe for the vast majority of the population. However, pregnant women, nursing mothers and those diagnosed with bipolar disorder should avoid or consult with a qualified healthcare practitioner before beginning supplementation.

In the end, rhodiola root is a great option for those feeling stressed or overwhelmed. Whether high stress in your life leads to poor sleep, depressed mood, low energy or even recurring colds and flus, rhodiola may be that missing piece to help get you out of your slump. Everyone needs support from time to time and rhodiola can be the much-needed crutch during a busy transition!

 

Select References:

  1.  Hung SK, Perry R, Ernst E. The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Phytomedicine 18 (2011) 235–244.
  2. Bystritsky A, Kerwin L, Feusner JD. A pilot study of Rhodiola rosea (Rhodax) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Mar;14(2):175-80.
  3. Kasper S and Dienel A. Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial with Rhodiola roseaextract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2017; 13: 889–898.
  4. De Bock, K., Eijnde, B.O., Ramaekers, M., et al., 2004. Acute Rhodiola rosea intake  an improve endurance exercise performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism 14 (3), 298–307.
  5. Abidov, M., Grachev, S., Seifulla, R.D., et al., 2004. Extract of Rhodiola rosea radixof Experimental Biology and Medicine 138 (1), 63–64. reduces the level of C-reactive protein and creatinine kinase in the blood. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 138 (1), 63–64.
  6. Darbinyan, V., Aslanyan, G., Amroyan, E., et al., 2007. Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L .extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Nordic Journalof Psychiatry 61 (6), 503.

Clinical Feedback from 2 years of Bio-Ferra prescribing

Posted November 15, 2016

By: Dr. Andrew Krause ND CSCS CISSN, Ontario Regional Manager, Cyto-Matrix

One of my favourite parts of my role with Cyto-Matrix is how often I get to see colleagues at their clinics, and hear about their clinical successes in practice. One product that has been getting particular mention in meetings over the past few months is Bio-Ferra.

Bio-Ferra is a liquid iron that uses a form of iron called Polyaccharide Iron Complex (PIC). We chose to use this form of iron in Bio-Ferra for three reasons:
1. PIC is a non-ionic form of iron, which means it does not need high stomach acid to be absorbed. This runs contrary to many other forms of iron that are prominent on the market, since an ionic form of iron requires high stomach acid to break the bond between the iron and whatever agent has been bound to it. Common agents bound to iron are: gluconate, fumarate, succinate, and bisglycinate. (1)
2. PIC is also significantly less constipating than other forms of iron, and therefore encourages better compliance than with other forms of iron (Bio-Ferra also has a palatable green apple taste). PIC has a higher lethal dose (LD50) than any other form of iron on the market (2,3), which makes it safe, along with being tolerable.
a. Bio-Ferra has been on the market for 26 months as of this writing, and we have yet to have a patient call in and complain about constipation related to the product!
3. PIC is a vegan source of iron! At Cyto-Matrix, we are always mindful of ensuring that our products can be used by the largest proportion of patients possible, so this was an important feature when choosing PIC.

 

Now that you understand the “why” behind Bio-Ferra, here are some of the clinical results we’ve seen and heard from clinicians using Bio-Ferra in practice over the last 2 years.
1. A pregnant patient was able to double her ferritin (16 to 32mcg/L) in two weeks with 2 teaspoons of Bio-Ferra per day, even considering her 1L of blood loss during the birthing process.
2. One clinician has had 4 cases in the past year where giving 2 tsps per day of Bio-Ferra doubles the patient’s ferritin levels in 3-6 months.
3. Another pregnant patient was able to raise her ferritin from 16 to 52 mcg/L with 3tsp per day dosing in 6 weeks, having also lost blood during the birthing process.
Among the many other iron products on the Canadian natural health product market, Bio-Ferra is a safe option that limits constipation, and is clinically effective at improving the symptoms of iron deficiency.
References:
1. Ma et al. Effects of Different Doses and Duration of Iron Supplementation on Curing Iron Deficiency Anemia: an Experimental Study. Biol Trace Elem Res (2014) 162:242–251
2. Oral Iron for Anemia: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-effectiveness and Guidelines. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health; 2016 Jan.
3. Klein-Schwartz, Wendy. Toxicity of Polysaccharide–Iron Complex Exposures Reported to Poison Control Centers. Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34:165-9.

Clear Skin Matters: Your Guide for Treating Acne

Posted April 21, 2016

Written by: Emily Elliot
Edited by: Ali Cockerill

Many patients concerned with acne arrive at the naturopathic doctor perplexed and frustrated as they express, ‘I have tried everything and nothing works!’ While the number of ‘acne fighting’ products that line the shelves of drug stores and supermarkets are constantly growing and promises of clear skin are endless, the treatment of acne is complex and the exact science has not yet been discovered. While the exact pathogenesis of acne is still largely a topic of scientific investigation, the good news is that many lifestyle changes have well documented results. Additionally, acknowledging that as patients that their hormonal status is unique may be a starting place for answers. While expensive lotions and creams are an excellent addition to a proper skin care regiment, acne is truly a journey from the inside out. Our skin is a very important messenger that can offer us insight into what is happening internally. Let’s review some of the strategies that are effective for clearing up the skin.

Mastering your meals, the best diet for acne:
The debate on whether or not diet contributes to acne is longstanding. However, studies are finally identifying what dermatologists have always truly known – yes, there is definitely a link between diet and breakouts. It is no coincidence that some non- Westernized populations report almost zero occurrence of acne lesions! (1)
Specifically, studies have shown reduced acne lesions and the associated improvements in insulin sensitivity with the consumption of a lower glycemic diet (RCI) (1). A diet in higher glycemic foods will ultimately spike blood sugars leading to increased androgens and IGF-1, which increases secretion of oil and clogs pores.

A low glycemic diet for acne should include lots of healthy fats (olive oil, fatty fish, nuts and seeds), plenty of fibre (25 g for women and 38 g for men), lots of dark leafy greens and an appropriate protein calculation for one’s body weight (a minimum of 0.8g/Kg of body weight). The anti-acne diet should also minimize dairy products as they have also been linked to increased IGF-1 production.

Focusing on lymph is no waste:
Exercise recommendations for the patient with acne can be met with some resistance. Fears may emerge regarding how ‘sweat build up’ may detriment the skin. However, it is important to focus on the benefits that come from regular exercise and to promote proper hygiene practices before and after workouts. Many patients working with acne have issues detoxifying and may display signs of a sluggish lymphatic system like: allergies, itching, chronic fatigue etc. Recommendations like cycling, running, walking, yoga and ‘rebounding’ (trampoline jumping) have all been documented for their lymphatic benefits (2). Through daily movement and generating lymphatic flow, the body brings forth oxygen and nutrients to the skin’s surface as it works to eliminate cellular debris and waste products that can build up in acne (3). There really is no substitute for a healthy, active lifestyle. Explaining the mechanics of lymphatic detox may empower the patient to see how movement can positively promote their anti-acne efforts.

Tame hormonal havoc:
Once diet and lifestyle have been approached, hormonal status is a vital part of the acne investigation. Hormonal acne is often linked to the menstrual cycle and can appear around the region of the chin, hairline and back. High androgens (testosterone and its breakdown product dihydrotestosterone) are frequently cited as a hormonal cause of acne (voice changes, hair loss on the head, irregular menstrual cycles in women, weight gain etc.)(4). However, it is important to rule out other hormonal presentations that could use balancing. For example, are there signs of high progesterone (depression, weight gain and increased fat storage, poor blood sugar balance) or low progesterone (hair loss, anxiety, increased allergies, sluggish metabolism etc.) (4). Testosterone, estrogen and progesterone all keep each other in fine balance, so don’t forget to assess all three of these important hormones. (Note: high cortisol can be implicated in testosterone production as well, a quick check on cortisol status may be well indicated too).

Skin superstars: In general, improving skin vitality and health relies on a few key players. Typical recommendations are Vitamin A 25000-50000 IU (contraindicated in pregnancy), Vitamin C 1000-5000 mg and Zinc 15-25 mg, making Cyto-Matrix’s ‘ACEs and Zinc’ truly a ‘skin basic’ (5). Reduced levels of serum zinc have also been identified in patients with increased acne lesions making it an excellent addition to the anti-acne treatment plan (1).

Essential fatty acids are also crucial in maintaining that healthy skin glow we all long for. EFAs found in Cyto-Matrix’s Omega D3 liquid forte not only hydrate the skin and replenish the skin’s barrier but also offer anti-inflammatory properties that are highly beneficial in an inflamed condition like acne. An important focus in skincare is not just combating the condition but also promoting the formation of healthy skin in general.

Boosting bowel terrain:
Oral probiotics help to reduce systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that are characteristic of acne as well as modulate IGF-1, one of the primary proteins linked to acne proliferation. The benefits of supplementation have also been documented for patients who are taking antibiotic treatment and suffering from the side effects of these treatments. One study showed the synergistic benefit of taking probiotics with minocycline when compared to the antibiotic alone as the combination group showed the greatest reduction in acne lesions when compared to the other controls (6).

Mindful medicine for acne:
The emotional effects of acne can be intense and extensive. One important study revealed that even in patients with mild acne, there were feelings of low self-esteem, depression and suicidal thoughts (7). Checking in on one’s overall journey with acne and validating their frustration is a crucial part of patient care and may hold one of the final pieces of the puzzle. When mind, body and soul are all honored as part of the patient’s journey, the truest healing begins.

(1) Logan, C and Treloar, V. The Clear Skin Diet. Naperville, IL. Cumberland House Publishing.
(2) Exercise for the Lymphatic System. (2016). Retrieved from http://cancercompassalternateroute.com/detox/various-exercises-for-the-lymphatic-system/#
(3) The Lymphatic System. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.lymphnotes.com/article.php/id/151/
(4) Turner, N. The Hormone diet. USA. Random House.
(5) Natural Ways to Treat and Prevent Acne. (October 2012). Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/natasha-turner-nd/natural-adult-acne-solutions_b_1952491.html
(6) Kober, M and Bowe, W. (2014). The Effect of Probiotic on Immune Regulation, Acne and Photoaging: International Journal of Women’s Dermatology , 1 (85-89).
(7) Dunn, L. (2011). Acne in Adolescents: Quality of life, self-esteem, mood and psychological disorders: Dermatology Online Journal, 17 (1): 1.

Benefits of Whey Protein Isolate

Posted July 17, 2015

By: Dr. Andrew Krause ND CSCS CISSN
Ontario Regional Representive
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Quick Summary: Provitalex is an unflavoured protein powder that is made from milk of North America grass fed cows. It’s minimally processed with cold water, which maintains the proteins in their natural undenatured since it is treated without heat. We use cross flow microfiltration which maintains larger amounts of beneficial immune components, antioxidants, essential amino acids, and minerals as opposed to lower quality protein powders that lose these beneficial ingredients during processing. Provitalex mixes well without the need of a blender and doesn’t sit heavy in the stomach, which makes it easy for someone on the go. At 20.24g of protein per 22g scoop, and 5g of BCAAs per scoop, Provitalex is an excellent choice of protein for you and your patients.
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I’ve used or prescribed each and everyone one of the Cyto-Matrix products at one point or another, and if there’s one product that I’m confident that almost every patient could use regardless of their health concerns or health goals, it’s Provitalex.

Protein powder is an ingredient that blends the line between medical food and supplement. Regardless of the kind of protein powder (vegetarian, vegan, milk based, beef based, or cricket based), it’s an ingredient that supplements a MACRO nutrient (carbohydrate, protein, or fat), which is unlike 90% of the natural health products on the market, which typically supplement MICRO nutrients. I qualify it as a medical food in my practice, just like I would a greens powder product or fish oil.

As a macronutrient, protein is something that is necessary for many different processes in the body, from immune function, to hair growth, to muscular health. The RDA (recommended dietary allowance) of protein is 0.8g of protein per kilogram of body weight. Both men and women have the same protein requirement; pregnant and lactating women do have a slightly increased need though (1.1g/kg and 1.3g/kg respectively) (1)

Now, the thing to know about the 0.8g/kg number is that this level is necessary to only meet adequacy for basic body functions. This doesn’t take into account the increased need for protein when you’re stressed (which is frequent), when you’re under slept (often), or when you’re exercising (hopefully 30 minutes per day!). Athletes can require between 1.2 and 1.7g protein kg body weight because of their increased muscular damage and stress on the body. (1)

For simplicity, I tell patients to eat 1g of protein per kilogram of body weight if they are inactive, and 1.5g/kg if they exercise over 3 days a week. This amounts to 64 g for someone who is 150lbs and inactive, and around 85g of protein for someone who is 200lbs and inactive. For active individuals, 96g for a 150lb individual and 127g protein for a 200lb individual.

Going overboard on protein isn’t a problem- there are large amounts of research that show that excess protein is not bad for the body, not even for the kidneys. This is especially true when you are eating enough vegetables as well. In research that showed that excess protein is a bad thing, patient’s diets were devoid in vegetables as well; if you get both protein and vegetables in adequate levels, you’re in the clear and on the way to optimal nutrition. However, going over 2g/kg bodyweight also hasn’t shown any benefit. (2)

What is Whey Protein Isolate anyways?
• Whey protein isolate is actually a molecule formed by several smaller proteins: beta lactoglobulin, alpha lactalbumin, glycomacropeptides, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, and lactoferrin

What about dairy intolerance?
• When someone experiences non-allergic symptoms from dairy, there can be a few explanations for those symptoms
o Lactose intolerance- ~15% of the adult population is lactose intolerant in Canada. Patients typically experience bloating, indigestion, and flatulence as main symptoms (3)
o IgG mediated milk protein intolerance- not very conclusively tied to symptoms, since IgG to milk protein rises regardless of the presence of symptoms in adults (4). This occurs in 3-5% of the childhood and adult population (5) This is predominantly an intolerance to casein, not whey.
o Therefore, even if someone is lactose intolerant or casein intolerant, a cross flow micro filtered whey protein isolate would most likely be suitable to consume.

Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) is my preferred protein for personal use and for my patients for 5 main reasons:
• WPI is well researched for muscle health
o Increases muscle protein synthesis related to exercise (6), prevents muscle loss in old age (7)
• WPI is a high quality protein powder
o Highest PDCAAS, BV, and PER of any protein powders (vegan or otherwise) on the market. These 3 scores measure the body’s ability to breakdown, process, and make amino acids available in the body. (8)
• WPI has a high BCAA content
o Around 22% of the proteins in whey protein isolate are branched chain amino acids, which have been shown to be helpful with exercise endurance and in stimulating recovery after exercise. (8)
• WPI increases glutathione levels (9)
o This boosts antioxidant status in the body and recovery from exercise (10) and can benefit psoriasis (11)
• It has a lower allergen content that casein and whey protein concentrate
o A decrease amount of lactose, casein, and beta lactaglobulin makes whey protein isolate much more tolerable for patients than other dairy-based protein options

There are two ways to make a whey protein isolate (WPI):

Ion Exchange- This method is a chemical method that requires a low pH environment (by the addition of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid) to separate the protein from the carbohydrate and fat that is native to dairy. Through this process, many of the beneficial fractions of whey protein are lost, as are the antioxidants, calcium, some essential amino acids, and naturally occurring proteases in milk. There is also heat involved in this process, which denatures some of the remaining proteins as well. This inevitably changes the taste of the protein as well- leaving it tasting somewhat salty and more processed.

Ion Exchange Whey has beta-lactoglobulin as the main protein fraction (70%) which is the most allergenic of the proteins in WPI, and the one without positive immune effects. (12)

Cross Flow Microfiltered- This is the method used to make Provitalex. This method uses cold water and pressure gradients, so there are no solvents involved to purify the whey protein. The milk is passed through ceramic filters in order to filter the whey, leaving an undenatured end product. Membrane filtration leaves whey protein isolate tasting similar to milk.

Beta-lactoglobulin is present to a lower degree in Provitalex, only 48% of total protein content, and has alphalactalbumin, lactoferrin, and immunoglobulins that are present to a much lower degree in Ion Exchange Whey. These bioactive protein fractions provide an important immune benefit to whey protein isolate and render cross flow microfiltration an overall superior product. (12)

Lastly, we chose not to flavor Provitalex so it can be used in any and all situations, from smoothies, to baking, to savory recipes if you would like. No sweet flavours here!

All in all, if you are having trouble reaching your protein levels based on your needs, you want to use whey protein isolate for it’s specific benefits, or you just need a more convenient way to ingest your daily protein, Provitalex protein is a great way to do so.

References
1. Canadian Sociey of Exercise Professionals. Protein for Active Canadians. CSEP. http://csep.ca/CMFiles/publications/dfc/Protein_booklet_e.pdf
2. American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. http://journals. lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2009/03000/ Nutrition_and_Athletic_Performance.27.aspx
3. Barr SI. Perceived lactose intolerance in adult Canadians: a national survey. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab2013;38:830-835.
4. Anthoni S, Savilahti E, Rautelin H, Kolho KL. Milk protein IgG and IgA: The association with milk-induced gastrointestinal symptoms in adults. World J Gastroenterol 2009 October 21; 15(39): 4915-4918
5. Peltoi L, Impivaara O, Salminen S, Poussa P, SeppaÈnen R, Lilius E-M. Milk hypersensitivity in young adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1999) 53, 620±624
6. Elliot, T.A., M. G. Cree, A. P. Sanford, R. R. Wolfe, and K. D. Tipton (2006). Milk ingestion stimulates net muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 38: 667-674.
7. Pennings, B., Y. Boirie, J. M. Senden, A. P. Gijsen, H. Kuipers, and L. J. van Loon (2011). Whey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 93: 997-1005.
8. Campbell, B, Kreider, R, Ziegenfuss, T, La Bounty, P, Roberts, M, Burke, D, Landis, J, Lopez, H, Antonio, J. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: protein and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2007, 4:8
9. Zavorsky GS1, Kubow S, Grey V, Riverin V, Lands LC. An open-label dose-response study of lymphocyte glutathione levels in healthy men and women receiving pressurized whey protein isolate supplements. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2007 Sep;58(6):429-36.
10. Sheikholeslami Vatani D1, Ahmadi Kani Golzar F.Changes in antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk factors of overweight young men after six weeks supplementation of whey protein isolate and resistance training. Appetite. 2012 Dec;59(3):673-8. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.08.005. Epub 2012 Aug 10
11. Prussick R1, Prussick L, Gutman J.Psoriasis Improvement in Patients Using Glutathione-enhancing, Nondenatured Whey Protein Isolate: A Pilot Study. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2013 Oct;6(10):23-6.
12. Sutherland J. Membrane vs. Ion Exchange – Which Process is Best for Whey Protein Powder?. Milk Specialties. http://www.milkspecialties.com/news/membrane-vs-ion-exchange-which-process-is-best-for-whey-protein-powder/

Persistent infection? Revisit an old friend: Garlic

Posted May 23, 2015

By Dr. Michelle Cali
National Scientific Advisor

We all are familiar with garlic as a multi-purpose anti-infective agent. With one of the longest histories as a medicinal food and, now, with a plethora of empirical evidence, garlic is reputed for its powerful ability to resolve even the most hostile of infections. This can be critically important in a time where new resistant strains of bacteria are emerging. New research has proven this natural agent’s effectiveness against the most feared, MRSA.

How does it work? Let’s review. Garlic’s active ingredient, allicin, is recognizable by its distinctive pungent odour. This oxygenated sulphur compound is created upon crushing or chewing raw garlic when its stable precursor, alliin comes into contact with allinase. Supplemental garlic can offer a concentrated form of this bioactive ingredient but are they all created equal? One hurdle companies have in dealing with garlic is the fact that allicin and its metabolites are quick acting and extremely unstable. Thus, making it difficult to capture in supplemental form. Cyto-Matrix’s Garlic Active Principles uses CO2 Supercritical Extraction to encapsulate allicin’s allyl sulfides and vinyldithiins in highly concentrated form.

So, is this the agent to use in unpretentious nagging infections? One of the most common chronic viral infections I see in practice is the common wart – an HPV infection causing skin growths that can last from months to years. Although not a dangerous infection, these lesions can be unsightly and can multiply over surfaces of hands, feet among other areas. They also may indicate an underlying need for immune support.

These are the cases in which I know I can rely on a trusted friend, garlic. But I have come to understand that potency and product matters. With its concentrated form of garlic’s bioactive components, Cyto-Matrix’s Garlic Active Principles works hard against HPV with minimal dosing. Depending on the severity of the lesions, I usually dose 2 capsules a day along with the basic immune support of 2 ACES+Zn and simple dietary considerations. This combination has shown powerful action against warts with patients revealing significant reduction in lesions in approximately 3 weeks and full resolution in 5-8 weeks (within 2 follow-up visits). In two severe cases, I initiated this treatment with a homeopathic anti-viral combination but found resolution time to be about the same. After complete resolution we discontinue the garlic supplementation and continue immune support if needed.

Although I turn to garlic supplements for many infection related issues, it is these simple cases that highlight its effectiveness for persistent infections and immune support.